Solving the Mysteries of Obstetrics, Part 5 of 5
 

Maternal Causes of Dystocia
Maxine Kinne

Blue lettering indicates the sire's possible contribution to dystocia.

Birth Canal

Abdomen

Uterus

Deficient Pelvis

Impaired Dilation

Expulsive Defect

Inertia

Immature pelvis
Deficient adult pelvis
Pelvic malformations
Obesity
Disease
Fracture
Breed

Uterus
   Congenital defect
   Hormone imbalance
   Cervical failure
   Inertia
   Scar tissue
   Torsion

Vagina
   Congenital defect
   Obesity
   Prolapse
   Scarring
   Growths
   Herniated bladder
   Injuries

Vulva
   Congenital defect
   Scarring
   Immaturity

Age
Debility
Pain
Uterine hernia
Ruptured diaphragm
Ruptured uterus
Primary
   Myometrium defects
      Intrinsic weakness
      Overstretching
      Toxic degeneration
      Obesity
      Senility
      Deficient diet
      Mineral imbalances
      Systemic illness
      Large fetus
      Large litter
      Lack of exercise

   Heredity
      Metabolic defect
      Hormone imbalance
      Minerals (Ca/Mg)

   Premature birth or abortion
   (many causes) 
    Genetic defects

   Environmental disturbance
      Stress
      Uterine rupture
      Uterine torsion

Secondary
   Exhaustion due to dystocia

Fetal Causes of Dystocia

Oversize

Faulty Orientation

Fetal Death

Absolute oversize
Small litter
Breed
Prolonged gestation
Birth defects

Overfeeding

Presentation (lengthwise)
   Posterior (breech)
   Transverse
   Simultaneous

Position
   Ventral (upside-down)
   Lateral (sideways)

Posture (deviated limbs)
   Front legs (?
)
   Head (?)
   Hind legs (breech)

Heredity
Disease
Injury
Note: It has been theorized in the Pygmy breed that:
1) head deviations may be the result of very short necks
2) front leg deviations may be the result of heavy bone and very short legs

Solving the Mysteries of Obstetrics

1   Normal Birth
2 - Recognizing and Assisting Dystocia

3 - Special Pregnancy Problems
4 - Hereditary and Congenital Defects

5 - Causes of Dystocia (chart)



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Updated 2002
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