Poisonous Plant List
Compiled by Maxine Kinne

Common name Botanical name Toxicity Toxic Parts Toxin
Acorns (see Red Oak) Quercus High all gallotoxins
Amaryllis Hippeastrum vittata Med. all lycorine
Andromeda A. floribunda & polyfolia

High

all andromedotoxin
Apricot Prunus armeniaca High wilted leaves cyanide
Arrow Grass (Marsh Grass,
     Pod Grass, Goose Grass)
Triglochin maritima High all cyanide
Avocado Persea spp Low leaves  
Azalea Rhododendron indicum

High

all glycosides
Baneberry Actea rubra Med. all ranunculin glycoside
Beet Beta spp . leaves .
Bindweed (Wild Morning Glory) Convolvulus arvensis Low all estropane alkaloids
Bitterweed (Sneezeweed) Helenium
Hymenoxys richarsonii
Med. all glycosides
sesquiterpene lactones
Black Henbane  Hyscyamus niger High all tropane alkaloids
Black Locust Robinia pseudoacadia
R. neomexicana
High bark, seeds,
new growth
glycoprotein
Black Walnut Juglans nigra Med. all unknown
Bleeding Heart Dicentra exemia Med. all various alkaloids
Bluebonnet Lupinus subcarnosus . seed .
Bouncing Bet (Soapweed) Saponaria officinalis Low all saponins
Bracken Fern Pteridium aquilinum Med. all thiaminase
Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum . all, except ripe seeds fagopyrin
Buffalobur - see Kansas Thistle Solanum rostratum High all solanine
Burdock Arctium spp. . trauma from spiny burs no toxin present
Burning bush Euonymus spp. Low all possible glycoside
Buttercup Ranunculus spp. Low all ranunculin, glycoside
Caladium (Angel's Wings) Caladium spp Med. all oxalates
Calla Lily Zantedeschia spp High all oxalates
Castor Bean Ricinus communis

High

seeds ricin
Cherry (all varieties) Prunus cerasus

High

wilted leaves cyanide
Chokecherry Prunus virginiana

High

wilted leaves cyanide
Christmas Rose Helleborus niger Low all protoanemonin
Clematis Clematis spp. Low all ranunculin, anemonin
Clover, Alsike (red) Trifolium spp . . .
Cocklebur Xanthium spp. . burs
2-leaf plantlets

trauma from spiny burs
carboxyactractyloside
Cotton Seed Gossypium spp. Low seed gossypol
Cow Cockle Saponaria spp.   all, especially seeds saponins
Cowslips Caltha palustris      
Crocus Colchium spp High all alkaloid colchicine
Crotolaria Crotolaria spectabalis High all pyrrolizidine alkaloids
Dock (Sorrel) Rumex crispus Low all oxalates
Daffodil Narcissus spp Med. all .
Daphne Daphne mezerium High all diterpenoid (mezerein)
Death Camas (Death Onion) Zigadenus spp. High all steroidal alkaloids
Delphinium (Larkspur) Delphinium spp. High all alkaloids
Desert Baileya Baileya multiradiata   all hymenoxon
Dieffenbachia (Dumbcane) Dieffenbachia spp Med. all oxalates
Dogbane (Indian Hemp) Apocynum cannabinum

High

all cardiac glycosides
Dog Fennel (Mayweed) Anthemis cotula      
Dutchman's Breeches Dicentra cucullaria Med. all numerous alkaloids
Elder (Elderberry, Danewort) Sambucus High foliage cyanide
Elephant Ear Colocasia Med. all oxalate
English Ivy Hedera helix Med. all saponic glycoside
Ergot fungus (infected grain) Claviceps spp Med. all ergotamine
False Hellebore Veratrum woodii Med. all various alkaloids
Fescue Festuca arundinacea High all endophyte fungus
Flax Linum spp. High all
linseed oil & linseed cake
cyanide
Foxglove Digitalis purpurea High all digitalis
Foxtail Barley Hordeum jubatum . awns (mechanical irritant)  
Hemlock Conium maculatum High all conicine
Giant Hogweed, (Cow Parsnip) Heracleum mantegazzianum Low all .
Holly Ilex Low berries illicin and others
Horse Chestnut, (Buckeye) Aesculus spp. High all glycosides
narcotic alkaloids
Horsetail Equisetum spp High all thiaminase
Horseradish Armoracea rusticana Low root glucosinolates
Hyacinth Hyacinthus spp Med. all  
Hydrangea Hydrangea spp Med. all cyanogenic glycoside
Iris Iris spp Med. all  
Jack-in-the pulpit Arisaema triphyllum Low all  
Jerusalem Cherry Physalis spp High all various alkaloids
Jimson Weed  (Thornapple) Datura stramonium High all various alkaloids
Johnsongrass Sorghum halapense High all cyanide
Jonquil Narcissus spp Med. all .
Kansas Thistle, Buffalo Burr Solanum rostratum High all
trauma from spiny burs
solanine
Laburnum (Golden Chain Tree) Laburnum anagyroides High all cytisine alkaloid
Lambsquarter (Wormseed) Chenopodium spp High oil from seeds nitrates
Lantana Lantana camara High all triterpene acids
Larkspur Delphinium tricorne Med. all various alkaloids
English Laurel Prunus laurocerasus

High

wilted leaves, stems, seed cyanogenic glycoside, amygalin 
Lily-of-the-valley Convallaria majalis Med. all .
Lobelia Lobelia spp High all pyridine alkaloids
Locoweed Oxytropis spp . all swainsonine
Lupine Lupinus spp

High

all alkaloids
Maple (red) Acer rubrum High leaves unknown
Milkweed Asclepius spp Med. all cardiac glycosides, galitoxin
Mistletoe Phoradendron flavescens  Med. berries several toxins
Mock Orange Philadelphus spp . . .
Mole Plant (Caper Spurge) Euphorbia lathyris Low all diterpene esters
Monkshood Aconitum spp High all  aconitine
Motherwort . . . .
Mountain Laurel Kalmia spplatifolia, K.augustifolia

High

all andromedotoxin
Narcissus Narcissus spp Med. all  
Nettle Urtica dioica, Laportea canadensis Low all various
Nightshade Solanum spp High all tropane alkaloids
Oats Avena sativa Med. grain nitrates, molds
Oleander Nerium oleander High all (incl. smoke) oleandrin, nerioside
Peach Prunus persica High wilted leaves cyanide
Pennycress Thlaspi Med. all isoallyl thiocyanates
Peppergrass Lepidium Med. all isoallyl thiocyanates
Philodendron Philodendron spp Low all oxalates
Pigweed Amaranthus retroflexus High all nephrotoxin, oxalates
Plum Prunus spp High wilted leaves cyanide
Poinsettia - NOT poisonous Euphorbia pulcherrima Reported toxicity is unfounded
Poison Ivy Rhus radicans Low all 3-n-pentadecylcatechol
Poison Oak Toxicodendron pubescens High sap - skin irritant urushiol
Pokeweed Phytolacca americana Low all saponins
Poppy Papaver somniferum High all alkaloids
Potato Solanum tuberosum High foliage solanine, other alkaloids
Privet Ligustrum spp High berries glycosides
Ragwort Senecio High all pyrrolizidine alkaloids
Red Oak (also: Gambel's oak,
         shinnery oak & post oak)
Quercus rubra (and others) High leaves, shoots
 and acorns
gallotoxins
Rhododendron Rhododendron spp High all glycosides
Rhubarb Rheum rhaponticum High leaves oxalates
Rosary Pea Abrus precatorius High seed abrin, abric acid
Rye Grass Lolium spp High rapidly growing  
Sago Palm Cycas revoluta Low all glycosides, amino acid BMAA
Scotch Broom Cytissus scoparius High all quinolizidine alkaloids
Skimmia Skimmia japonica   red fruits unknown
Skunk Cabbage Symplocarpus foetida Low all oxalates
Smartweed Polygonum spp . . nitrates
Sneezeweed (see Bitterweed) Helenium spp Low all sesquiterpene lactone
Snow-on-the-mountain Euphorbia marginata High all cocarcinogenic diterpenoids
Spurge (many varieties) Euphorbia spp. Low all diterpene esters
St. John's Wort Hypericum perforatum Med. all hypericin
Sudan Grass ????? Sorghum vulgare or sudanensis ?? . . nitrates
Sweet Pea Lathyrus spp Low seeds amine, phenol & glycoside
Thistle (Canada, Russian) Cirsium arvense, Rumex spp Low all nitrates
Toadstools . . all .
Tobacco Nicotiana spp Med. all nictotine (alkaloid)
Tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Med. foliage glycoalkaloids
Vetch (some varieties) Vicia spp . seed cyanide
Water Hemlock (Cowbane) Cicuta spp High all cicutoxin
White Snakeroot Eupatorium rugosum High all tremetol
Wild Carrot Daucus carota Low leaves falcarinol
Wild Cherry Prunus serotina High wilted leaves, twigs, seed cyanide
Wild Mustard Brassica Med. all isoallyl thiocyanates
Wisteria Wisteria spp High seeds and pods unknown
Yellow Jessamine Gelsemium spp High all alkaloids
Yew Taxus spp High all taxine

Note: Prunus spp. are trees that produce fruits with a single seed or pit (apricot, cherry and plum).
These plants produce toxins in the bark and in wilted leaves, but not in fresh leaves or d
ried leaves.

Other Common Poisons

Creosote-treated wood
Fertilizers
Grain, fed in excess
Grain, moldy or sour smelling
Hay, moldy or sour smelling
Herbicides
Insecticides
Lead paint
Medication overdoses
Pastures, freshly fertilized
Rodent poisons & baits



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Updated 2004
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